The above principles represent a spectrum of traditional normative principles and are derived from both consequentialist and duty-based approaches. Readers may have found some or many of my responses inadequate, misapplied, unhelpful, or otherwise unsatisfactory, but I believe those problems result more from the one-shot, limited interaction format.
When examining both sides of the issue, the parents and the courts concluded that the arguments against surgery were stronger than the arguments for surgery.
I see that perspective as authoritarian so I call my approach non-authoritarian. If in doubt about the harmful effects of research, investigators should seek the opinion of others.
Rights and duties are related in such a way that the rights of one person implies the duties of another person. These tasks require less rule following, and more spontaneous and creative action. For Kant, we treat people as an end whenever our actions toward someone reflect the inherent value of that person.
Without "ethical culture," there is no salvation for humanity. The issue of drive-by shooting, for example, is not an applied ethical issue, since everyone agrees that this practice is grossly immoral.